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Core bindings
bindings error C—error identity if ignore •ignore newIgnore nullbind •time typeof void

This top level namespace is reserved for the Shapes project itself. Only the most generic and essential things belong in this namespace. However, at the moment, there are also some things that are only generic but not essential here, and the plan is to move these inside some nested namespace in the future.
Other top level namespaces include ..Applications, ..User, and ..Contrib.
Sections:    Essentials    Ignoring    Convenience


A value used to symbolize the absence of a value.
The value plays a special role in code-bracket, where it is the only allowed value of all but the last expression.
Often used as the default value for an optional function argument, when the actual value being used by default is derived from other arguments.
See also:ignore
A convenient function of one argument, that simply returns the argument.
The Shapes core has some optimizations that recognize this function, so, when possible, prefer to use over any user-defined function with the same behavior.
predicate::§Boolean consequence alternative:void §Void
Conditional evaluation. If predicate holds, evaluates to consequence, otherwise evaluates to alternative.
The current design with an optional alternative does not play well with types. When Shapes is equipped with a type system in the future, the design of is likely to change so that there is one function with mandatory alternative of the same type as consequence, and one function with optional alternative and optional return type.
Represents the ever-changing state being the current time. It's main characteristic is nothing but that; one can be sure that it will change from one peek of it to the next.
So what's the use of it? For semantic reasons, it shall be required by the kernel's non-pure functions that interact with the outside world in such a way that the result may be different from one invocation to another (and would otherwise not have any state parameters).
Another obvious use of •time is to simply ask for the time. Please refer to §•Time for details.
::§Object §Class
Returns the most specific type of the argument.
kind::§Symbol source::§String message::§String details:void cause:void §Void
Constructs an §Exception located to the point where error was called, and passes it to C—error. For most values of kind, cause is not used; when used, it provides additional information used to format message.
The values of kind used by the core (see §Exception) affect how message is formatted, and the value of kind must be in agreement with how it is used by the core (with some exceptions explained below).
If kind is 'type_mismatch, the expected type shall be described in message, and the value causing the error (not a description of its type!) shall be passed in cause.
General-purpose error-handling.
Expects type: §Exception
Default binding:
Abort program evaluation, providing the message and backtrace to the compiler for display.
By using a dedicated escape continuation rather than an immediatly aborting construct, it is possible to detect and recover in some error situations.


Swallow anything and return void instead.
If an impure function has both side effects and a return value, may be used to only get the side effects when the impure call is not at the end of a code bracket.
To be used when a state parameter is required by a non-pure function, but one does not care about the result.
This is a hot value.


::§DynamicBindings ::§DynamicBindings ...::§DynamicBindings §DynamicBindings
Dynamic references:none
Combines dynamic bindings. Can be used instead of repeating the operator &.
May be used when combinding several dynamic bindings, and one would like — for clarity of notation — to use exactly one operator & for each dynamic binding; not having the operator for the first (or last, depending on how you see things) will break symmetry and make it difficult to indent source code nicely.
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